Friday, November 9, 2018

Seminar Set to Assist Agricultural Producers with New Tax Laws, Managing Taxable Income

Seminar Set to Assist Agricultural Producers with New Tax Laws, Managing Taxable Income
Congress passed a new tax law in December 2017 that will impact all business entities and people who file a tax return for the 2018 tax year.

ARDMORE, Okla. — The Noble Research Institute will provide farmers, ranchers and landowners with the latest tax preparation information during a Managing Taxes Seminar from 1-5 p.m. Thursday, Nov. 29, 2018, at the Noble Research Institute’s Kruse Auditorium.

During the seminar, Noble Research Institute agricultural economists and Doug Dean, CPA, will provide information, tips and advice:
·         New legislation
·         Income and expense issues in agriculture
·         Depreciation
·         Tax changes
·         End-of-year planning strategies.

“Time spent learning about the various aspects of your tax bill is always time well-spent,” said Dan Childs, agricultural economist. “Attendees will leave with the knowledge to help them successfully navigate some of the finer details of the tax process.”

This event is offered at no charge, but preregistration is required. For more information and to register, please visit or call 580-223-5810.

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

First Aid Kits for Production Agriculture from Iowa State University Extension And Outreach October 4, 2018

Accidents on farms and ranches can be quite severe, and space in a first aid kit is limited, so it is important to choose items for kits wisely. ( AgWeb )
Complied by Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice

Most farms and ranches require multiple first aid kits due to the many types of jobs and the dispersed areas of work in a production agriculture operation. Not only is it important to have appropriate first aid kits on your farm or ranch, it is important that you and others in your operation understand basic first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

First Aid Kit. Source: Penn State University
Accidents on farms and ranches can be quite severe, and space in a first aid kit is limited, so it is important to choose items for kits wisely. Follow these guidelines when assembling a first aid kit:
Include pertinent personal information in first aid kits for individuals who have specific medical conditions. For example, indicate that a certain person has an allergic reaction to bee stings.
Include the contact information for the family doctor of each person working in the vicinity of the kit.
Remember that agricultural incidents may occur at night or in winter, so include items such as flares, flashlights, emergency blankets, and waterproof matches.
In an emergency situation, it is common for people to forget what they have learned in first aid classes, so include a first aid manual in each kit.
For the kits, use containers that are dust-free and water-resistant. Label the kits clearly.
Check first aid kits annually for expired products such as ice packs, heat packs, ointments, saline solution, and so on, and change the flashlight batteries. When you use any items in a first aid kit, replace the items immediately.
Larger first aid kits should be located at main farm or ranch buildings or in the home. Smaller first aid kits should be kept on major pieces of farm equipment and in vehicles.
The following items should be included in a large first aid kit:
  • Sterile first aid dressings in sealed envelopes, in the following sizes:
    • 2 in. by 2 in. for small wounds
    • 4 in. by 4 in. for larger wounds and for compresses to stop bleeding
  • Two trauma dressings for covering large areas
  • Small, sterile adhesive compresses in sealed envelopes
  • Roller bandages and 1 in., 2 in., and 6 in. cling bandages
  • Rolls of adhesive tape in assorted widths (to hold dressings in place)
  • Triangle bandages to use as slings or as coverings over large dressings
  • Antiseptic wash
  • Tongue depressors
  • Bandage scissors and heavy-duty scissors to cut clothing
  • Tweezers to remove insect stingers or small splinters
  • Splints that are 1/4 in. thick by 3 in. wide by 12 to 15 in. long for splinting broken arms and legs
  • Sterile saline solution
    • 8 fl. oz. for small kits
    • 2 qt. for large kits
  • Safety pins
  • Ice packs (chemical ice bags) to reduce swelling
  • A pocket mask for resuscitation
  • Three small packages of sugar for individuals with diabetes
  • Disposable rubber gloves and eye goggles
  • An emergency blanket
Note that dressings must be sterile—do not make your own dressings.
Farm first aid kits can be purchased through certain businesses and organizations. Click the links below to view kits and ordering information:
Specialty Kits
Injuries vary from job to job in production agriculture, so first aid kits should be tailored to the potential injury that could result from a particular job. Listed below are specialty kits and recommended items, in addition to the basic items outlined above, for inclusion in each kit.
Specialty First Aid Kits
Type of Specialty Kit
Types of Injury
Kit Items
Small wounds, minor or major bleeding, fractures, sprains, or severed limbs, amputation, or entanglement
Basic first aid manual
Two triangular bandages (36 in.)
Antiseptic spray
Six large adhesive bandages
Four safety pins
Sterile compress bandages (four 2 in. by 2 in. bandages and four 4 in. by 4 in. bandages)
Roll of 2 in. wide tape
Two pressure bandages (8 in. by 10 in.)
Two rolls of elastic wrap
Five clean plastic bags (varied sizes from bread bags to garbage bags)
Amputation of a finger or limb
Plastic bags of varying sizes (one large garbage bag, four medium kitchen garbage bags, and eight small plastic bread bags)
Closable container to store bags
Dressing Supplies
Major trauma
Sterile compresses (2 in. by 2 in. and 4 in. by 4 in.)
Gauze roller bandages (1 in., 2 in., and 6 in. wide)
Adhesive tape
Triangular bandage
Tongue depressors
Heavy-duty scissors
Chemical ice packs
Disposable rubber gloves
Tweezers and safety pins
Emergency blanket
Antiseptic spray
Fracture (for immobilization of an injured limb)
Broken bone
Wooden or plastic splints
Roll of elastic wrap
Tongue depressors
Pesticide Exposure (for use during pesticide application season or to keep in pesticide storage area)
Ingestion of or contact with pesticide
Emergency and poison control center contact information
Two 1 qt. containers of clean water
Ipecac syrup
Emergency blanket
Plastic bags
Disposable rubber gloves

Action Steps

Take the following steps to prepare for potential emergencies or accidents on your farm or ranch:
Get training in first aid and CPR. Contact the American Red Cross, National Safety Council, or local emergency medical service or hospital to locate trainings in your area.
Make specialized first aid kits for various areas of the farm or ranch. Follow the instructions above to assemble the kits and remember to restock the kit after use and to replace expired items annually.
For more information about preparing your farm or ranch personnel for an agricultural incident, click here to access the article "Basic First Aid" and here to access "Basic CPR."

First aid kits for production agriculture. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from
Murphy, D., Pollock, J., Smith, G., Bean, T., & Sailus, M. (1989) First on the scene. National Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES). Retrieved from
Schwab, C. & Sheridan, C. (2008) Farm emergency and first aid kits. Iowa State University Extension. Retrieved from
Schwab, C. & Miller, L. (2008) How to respond to farm injuries. Iowa State University Extension. Retrieved from

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University –
Gary Erisman, Retired Safety Faculty - Illinois State University and active farmer (Has since retired)
Davis Hill, Pennsylvania State University – (has since retired)
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University - (has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center –

Wednesday, August 29, 2018

When Do We Intervene and Assist a Cow or Heifer in Labor? Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University August 15, 2018 10:33 AM

Before the fall calving season commences, now is the time to put together and post a protocol for family members and hired employees to follow when they find a cow or heifer starting in the process of calving. An issue facing the rancher at calving time, is the amount of time heifers or cows are allowed to be in labor before assistance is given. Formerly, traditional text books, fact sheets and magazine articles stated that “Stage II” of labor lasted from 2 to 4 hours. “Stage II” is defined as that portion of the birthing process from the first appearance of the water bag until the baby calf is delivered. Research data from Oklahoma State University and the USDA experiment station at Miles City, Montana clearly show that Stage II is much shorter, lasting approximately 60 minutes in first calf heifers, and 30 minutes or less in mature cows.
Table 1. Research Results of Length of Stage II of Parturition
No. of Animals
Length of Stage II
USDA (Doornbos, et al.1984. JAS:59:1)
24 mature cows
22.5 min.
USDA (Doornbos, et al.1984. JAS:59:1)
32 first calf heifers
54.1 min.
Oklahoma State Univ.
(Putnam, et al. 1985. Therio:24:385)
32 first calf heifers
55.0 min.
In these studies, heifers that were in stage II of labor much more than one hour or cows that were in stage II much more than 30 minutes definitely needed assistance. Research information also shows that calves from prolonged deliveries are weaker and more disease prone, even if born alive. In addition, cows or heifers with prolonged deliveries return to heat later and are less likely to be bred for the next calf crop. Consequently a good rule of thumb: “If the heifer is not making significant progress 1 hour after the water bag or feet appear, examine the heifer to see if you can provide assistance. Mature cows should be watched for only 30 minutes before a rectal examine is conducted.” Make certain the cervix is completely dilated before pulling on the chains. If you cannot safely deliver the calf yourself at this time, call your local large animal veterinarian immediately.
Most ranches develop heifers fully, and use calving ease bulls to prevent calving difficulties. However, a few difficult births are going to occur each calving season. Giving assistance in a timely manner will save a few more calves, and result in healthier more productive two-year old cows to rebreed next year.

Wednesday, August 22, 2018

Additional Informaton on Armyworms - Allen Knutson, Extenstion Entomologist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service

    Regarding fall armyworm in pastures and hay, the pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used as they are effective and generally less costly, due to some being available as generics.  Pyrethroid insecticides can be recognized by their active ingredient which ends in “thrin” and include beta-cyfluthrin, cyfluthrin, gamma and lambda cyfluthrin and zeta-cypermethrin.  Prevathon and Besiege can provide longer residual control but can be more expensive than pyrethroids.  Intrepid, Tracer and Dimilin should be applied when armyworms are small, , less than ½ inch.  Dimilin is sometimes added to a pyrethroid insecticide to extend the control period. 
    Fall armyworms can also damage fall planted small grains and other forage grasses.  The insecticides labeled for these crops can be different than those listed here for pastures and hay.
    Fall armyworms can be active through October and even into early November if temperatures remain warm.  

As always,  check products before you purchase to make sure they fit your need.  Read the label to ensure you use the correct amount for the most effective control.   Also follow container disposal procedures when container is empty.

The Fall Armyworm – A Pest of Pasture and Hay. Allen Knutson Extension Entomologist, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Dallas

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a common pest of bermudagrass, sorghum, corn, wheat and rye grass and many other crops in north and central Texas.  Larvae of fall armyworms are green, brown or black with white to yellowish lines running from head to tail.  A distinct white line between the eyes forms an inverted “Y” pattern on the face.  Four black spots aligned in a square on the top of the segment near the back end of the caterpillar are also characteristic. Armyworms are very small (1/8 inch) at first, cause little plant damage and as a result often go unnoticed.  Larvae feed for 2-3 weeks and full grown larvae are about 1 to 1 1/2 inches long. Given their immense appetite, great numbers, and marching ability, fall armyworms can damage entire fields or pastures in a few days.

Once the armyworm larva completes feeding, it tunnels into the soil to a depth of about an inch and enters the pupal stage. The armyworm moth emerges from the pupa in about ten days and repeats the life cycle.  The fall armyworm moth has a wingspan of about 1 1/2 inches. The front pair of wings is dark gray with an irregular pattern of light and dark areas.  Moths are active at night when they feed on nectar and deposit egg masses.  A single female can deposit up to 2000 eggs and there are four to five generations per year. The fall armyworm apparently does not overwinter in north Texas, but survives the winter in south Texas.  Populations increase in south Texas in early spring and successive generations move northward as the season progresses. 

Management.  Fall armyworm outbreaks in pastures and hay fields often occur following a rain which apparently creates favorable conditions for eggs and small larvae to survive in large numbers.  Hay fields with a dense canopy and vigorous plant growth are often more susceptible to armyworm infestations than less intensely fertilized and managed fields. Irrigated fields are also susceptible to fall armyworm infestations, especially during drought conditions.  Also monitor volunteer wheat and weedy grasses in ditches and around fields which may be a source of armyworms that can move into the adjacent crop.

Look for fall armyworm larvae feeding in the crop canopy during the late evening and early morning and during cool, cloudy weather.  During hot days, look for armyworms low in the canopy or even on the soil surface where they hide under loose soil and fallen leaves.  A sweep net is very effective for sampling hay fields for fall armyworms.  When fields are wet with dew, armyworms can stick on rubber boots worn while walking through the field. Small larvae chew the green layer from the leaves, creating a “window pane” effect and later notch the edges of leaves. 

The key to managing fall armyworms is frequent inspection of fields to detect
infestations before they have caused economic damage.   Once larvae are more than ¾  inch long, the quantity of foliage the eat incvreases dramatically.  During their final 2-3 days of feeding, armyworms eat 80% of the total foliage consumed during their entire development.

The density of armyworms sufficient to justify insecticide treatment depends on the stage of crop growth and value of the crop.  Seedling plants can tolerate fewer armyworms than established plants.  Infestations of more than 2-3 armyworms (1/2 inch or longer) per square foot may justify an insecticide application. If practical, apply insecticides early in the morning or late in the evening when armyworm larvae are most active and therefor most likely to come into contact with the insecticide spray.  If the field is near harvest, an early harvest, rather than an insecticide treatment, is an option.

Parasitic wasps and flies, ground beetles, and insect viruses help suppress armyworm numbers. However, these natural enemies can be overwhelmed when large numbers of migrating moths move into an area and weather conditions favor high survival of eggs and larvae.